Polynomial

There are several conditions that need to be met in order to determine whether a mathematical expression is a polynomial. First, polynomials consist of constants and variables. These constants and variables make separable parts of a polynomial called terms and polynomials are made up of a finite number of these terms. The terms are separated by the symbols of mathematical operations (+,-,*), which brings us to the second condition.

The only mathematical operations which can be used in polynomials are addition, subtraction and multiplication. Division, in which the variable is a part of the denominator, does not produce a polynomial. If the denominator is a constant, a polynomial can be produced.

The third condition and the defining characteristic of polynomials are powers (or exponents). We covered exponents in the article called Squares and square roots, so if you are not sure what they are, feel free to refresh your memory. Each term in a polynomial has to have its non-negative integer exponent. That means that the value of the exponent for each term can be any integer between (and including) zero and any other finite value.

Terms and polynomials have their degrees or orders. The order of a term is determined by the sum of the exponents in that term. The order of a polynomial is the largest one among the orders of the terms that make the polynomial. That means that, for example, polynomials of the fourth order would look somewhat like this:

a*x4 + b*x3 + c*x2 + d*x + e

Or, if they have two variables, like this:

A*x2*y2 + b*x*y + c

We can name polynomials according to their degrees (or orders).

Degree

Name

0

constant

1

linear

2

quadratic

3

cubic

4

quartic (biquadratic)

5

quintic

6

sextic (hexic)

7

septic (heptic)

8

octic

9

nonic

10

decic

100

hectic

 

These are the degrees which have special names. For others you can always use the standard nomenclature – eleventh degree, 57th order and such.

Another important thing to know is that polynomials can have any number of terms as long as the number of terms is finite, no matter what their order is. Depending on that number, we name them:

Number of non-zero terms

Name

0

zero polynomial

1

monomial

2

binomial

3

trinomial

 

All other polynomials are simply called – polynomials.

What is interesting about the zero polynomial is that its order is intentionally left explicitly undefined or is defined to be negative, usually with the values of -1 or negative infinity. Also, it is the only one with an infinite number of roots.

Polynomials have several basic properties, a few of which we are going to mention here. The first one is that the sum of polynomials is always a polynomial (levitra online). Also the product of polynomials is itself a polynomial. The same thing goes for the composition of two polynomials.

Simplifying a polynomial

Solving polynomials of the third order or greater requires some advanced mathematical knowledge and we will show you how to do it when the time comes. But for now we will stick to the simplification of polynomials.

There are a few things you should have in mind when simplifying polynomials. The most important thing to remember is that addition and subtraction can be performed only with terms that have the same variables and of the same order! That is a general rule in mathematics, but it is particularly observable in this case. Also, all rules about the order of operations apply.

If after all this polynomials remind you of equations – you are right. In fact, polynomials perform as any other equations and you can treat them as such. But the reason we are mentioning them separately from equations is that they are the gateway to more complex mathematics and it is of vital importance that you understand them and know how to deal with them properly.

If you wish to practice what you learned and try to simplify a polynomial or two, please feel free to use the math worksheets below.

Polynomial exams for teachers

Exam Name File Size Downloads Upload date
Single variable – Integers
Integer polynomials with a single variable – very easy 0 B 3175 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with a single variable – easy 0 B 1707 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with a single variable – medium 0 B 2282 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with a single variable – hard 0 B 1934 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with a single variable – very hard 0 B 1841 January 1, 1970
Single variable – Decimals
Decimal polynomials with a single variable – very easy 0 B 1174 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with a single variable – easy 0 B 1067 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with a single variable – medium 0 B 1069 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with a single variable – hard 0 B 953 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with a single variable – very hard 0 B 1014 January 1, 1970
Single variable – Fractions
Polynomial fractions with a single variable – very easy 0 B 1305 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with a single variable – easy 0 B 1146 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with a single variable – medium 0 B 1200 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with a single variable – hard 0 B 1178 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with a single variable – very hard 0 B 1330 January 1, 1970
Two variables – Integers
Integer polynomials with two variables – very easy 0 B 1522 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with two variables – easy 0 B 1308 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with two variables – medium 0 B 1504 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with two variables – hard 0 B 1469 January 1, 1970
Integer polynomials with two variables – very hard 0 B 1399 January 1, 1970
Two variables – Decimals
Decimal polynomials with two variables – very easy 0 B 1044 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with two variables – easy 0 B 979 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with two variables – medium 0 B 986 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with two variables – hard 0 B 964 January 1, 1970
Decimal polynomials with two variables – very hard 0 B 1073 January 1, 1970
Two variables – Fractions
Polynomial fractions with two variables – very easy 0 B 1051 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with two variables – easy 0 B 925 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with two variables – medium 0 B 973 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with two variables – hard 0 B 937 January 1, 1970
Polynomial fractions with two variables – very hard 0 B 1106 January 1, 1970

Polynomial worksheets for students

Worksheet Name File Size Downloads Upload date
Single variable – Integers
Simplify 4 integer polynomials with a single variable 0 B 2559 January 1, 1970
Simplify 5 integer polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1162 January 1, 1970
Simplify 6 integer polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1288 January 1, 1970
Simplify 7 integer polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1152 January 1, 1970
Simplify 8 integer polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1114 January 1, 1970
Simplify 9 integer polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1947 January 1, 1970
Single variable – Decimals
Simplify 4 decimal polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1231 January 1, 1970
Simplify 5 decimal polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1302 January 1, 1970
Simplify 6 decimal polynomials with a single variable 0 B 973 January 1, 1970
Simplify 7 decimal polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1174 January 1, 1970
Simplify 8 decimal polynomials with a single variable 0 B 904 January 1, 1970
Simplify 9 decimal polynomials with a single variable 0 B 1038 January 1, 1970
Single variable – Fractions
Simplify 4 polynomial fractions with a single variable 0 B 1224 January 1, 1970
Simplify 5 polynomial fractions with a single variable 0 B 1010 January 1, 1970
Simplify 6 polynomial fractions with a single variable 0 B 1080 January 1, 1970
Simplify 7 polynomial fractions with a single variable 0 B 933 January 1, 1970
Simplify 8 polynomial fractions with a single variable 0 B 1320 January 1, 1970
Simplify 8 polynomial fractions with a single variable 0 B 998 January 1, 1970
Two variables – Integers
Simplify 4 integer polynomials with two variables 0 B 3250 January 1, 1970
Simplify 5 integer polynomials with two variables 0 B 1484 January 1, 1970
Simplify 6 integer polynomials with two variables 0 B 1374 January 1, 1970
Simplify 7 integer polynomials with two variables 0 B 1266 January 1, 1970
Simplify 8 integer polynomials with two variables 0 B 1406 January 1, 1970
Simplify 9 integer polynomials with two variables 0 B 1429 January 1, 1970
Two variables – Decimals
Simplify 4 decimal polynomials with two variables 0 B 973 January 1, 1970
Simplify 5 decimal polynomials with two variables 0 B 1038 January 1, 1970
Simplify 6 decimal polynomials with two variables 0 B 1118 January 1, 1970
Simplify 7 decimal polynomials with two variables 0 B 930 January 1, 1970
Simplify 8 decimal polynomials with two variables 0 B 910 January 1, 1970
Simplify 9 decimal polynomials with two variables 0 B 934 January 1, 1970
Two variables – Fractions
Simplify 4 polynomial fractions with two variables 0 B 1311 January 1, 1970
Simplify 5 polynomial fractions with two variables 0 B 1126 January 1, 1970
Simplify 6 polynomial fractions with two variables 0 B 917 January 1, 1970
Simplify 7 polynomial fractions with two variables 0 B 949 January 1, 1970
Simplify 8 polynomial fractions with two variables 0 B 1117 January 1, 1970
Simplify 9 polynomial fractions with two variables 0 B 1244 January 1, 1970